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Alternate Angle of Internal Friction of Soil

In some cases it appears more suitable for the analysis of earth pressures to introduce for cohesive soils an alternate angle of internal friction φn that also accounts for the influence of cohesive soil in conjunction with the normal stress developed in the soil. The magnitude of the normal stress for determining the value of alternate angle of internal friction depends on the type of geotechnical problem, foundation conditions, etc. For deep seated foundation pits or constructions in homogeneous or relatively simple environment the normal stress is introduced in the centroid of the load mass. In case of shallow pits or complex environment the normal stress is assumed in the heel of the loading diagram - see figure:

Determination of normal stress for alternate angle of internal friction of soil φn

The alternate angle of internal friction of soil is given by:

where:

σz

-

vertical geostatic stress

φ

-

angle of internal friction of soil

c

-

cohesion of soil

When computing the pressure at rest for cohesive soils σr using the Jáky formula for the determination of coefficient of earth pressure at rest K0, it is recommended to use the alternate angle of internal friction φn.

Determination of alternate angle of internal friction of cohesive soil